The triumph of Evo Morales in the 6th December elections, with 64% of the votes, completely reshapes the Bolivian political field and consolidates the first new way in politics since 1952. However, there is a lot of confusion about the exact nature of the Bolivian process, between those who believe they see non-existent eco-communitary and anti-modern transformations, and those who are in complete denial of the indigenous identities. This article sustains that political-sociological rapprochement would allow light to be thrown on the social bases (and ambivalences) of the current process of change: in particular, enabling popular nationalism to be identified, which acts as a unifying nucleus of the governing party. Although it is showing a more indigenous face today than in the 1950s, popular nationalism has recuperated almost entirely the modernizing, industrial and economic development imagery of the past.
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